Two exciting performance improvements are coming to Rust’s standard library soon - we’re replacing mutexes with parking_lot and replacing hash maps with hashbrown. The public interface will stay the same while the internal implementations are swapped out for much faster ones. All Rust programs using those primitives will therefore magically get faster, too!

In this blog post, I’m proposing we also replace the guts of mpsc with crossbeam-channel for some more performance wins. However, unlike with mutexes and hash maps, this change will also enable oft-requested new features that make it tempting to deprecate mpsc altogether and introduce better channels designed from scratch.

The mpsc channels are not perfect. We have a bunch of regrets over some decisions made before their stabilization. Now could be a good time to revisit those decisions and consider fixing the mistakes.

The dilemma

Just a quick reminder worth bringing up first. Unstable feature mpsc_select was introduced in 2015 and we’ve decided to deprecate it in late 2018 with the intention of removing in a future Rust release. The reason is that it adds a lot of complexity that feels like shouldn’t belong to the standard library. The feature never worked as well as we hoped and crossbeam-channel is a better alternative anyway. I fully support this decision as selection makes channels at least 2x more complex when measured in lines of code, and users who need selection can always reach for crossbeam-channel.

We probably don’t want to copy the whole crossbeam-channel into std because it is just way too big. Without tests, comments, and blank lines, it contains ~4100 lines of code, while mpsc contains ~2300, and even that is plenty. We’d instead prefer a slimmer version of crossbeam-channel that doesn’t support selection. I have a tentative new implementation for mpsc based on crossbeam-channel that is only ~1700 lines long. You can find it here, but keep in mind it’s still a work in progress.

I’m sure everyone wants mpsc to be faster because why not. However, there might be disagreements on how far to take this proposal - besides improving performance, we could also improve the interface and enable new features:

  1. One option is uncontroversial: swap the codebase behind mpsc and finally implement Sync for Sender.

  2. The other option is more radical: introduce std::sync::channel module with the new implementation and a modern API. std::sync::mpsc then becomes obsolete so we’d probably want to deprecate it at some point.

While the second option might seem a bit too far-reaching, I’ll try to make a convincing case for it and demonstrate the benefits would be worth it.

The summary of the argument is the following. The whole mpsc module is unnecessarily complicated to use, uses odd jargon, is generally a poor example of design in Rust, and if we were to do it from scratch today, we’d do it much differently. I personally even feel it’d be better to have no channels than keep mpsc as is - it is that bad!

Why have channels in std at all?

It has sometimes been suggested we deprecate mpsc and point users to external channel crates like crossbeam-channel. While this is a compelling option, I think in 2019 channels are a fundamental synchronization primitive, and we do need them in the standard library. They are basically as important as mutexes! Every modern programming language should have at least very basic channels in its concurrency kit.

And if we’re going to have channels in the standard library, what should be the difference between those and channels in external crates? My position is the standard library’s channels should focus on:

  • Simplicity. The interface must be lean and simple, and the codebase must be understandable. We don’t want crazy optimizations that make the codebase too challenging to maintain.

  • Good performance. It doesn’t have to be best-in-class but has to be reasonable. Just wrapping a VecDeque inside a Mutex to make the queue concurrent would be disappointing.

  • Fast compilation. The current implementation monomorphizes so much code you can notice mpsc increasing compilation times!

The “no-brainer” proposal

If we’re to keep mpsc as the channel module in std, then we should at least incorporate performance improvements from crossbeam-channel and implement Sync for Sender.

More concretely, this is the conservative proposal I don’t expect anyone to have objections to:

  1. Delete the unstable and deprecated mpsc_select feature.
  2. Swap out the guts of mpsc with the slimmed-down version of crossbeam-channel.
  3. Add unsafe impl<T: Send> Sync for Sender<T> {}.
  4. Do a crater run to make sure there are no regressions.

If we go this route, the benefits will be:

  • Faster channels overall. In particular, bounded channels become much faster.
  • Sender finally implements Sync.
  • A long-standing bug gets fixed.
  • Fewer unsafe blocks - we go from 101 down to 33.
  • Shorter compilation time for code using channels - a hello world with channels goes from 1.6 sec down to 1.2 sec on my machine.

There will be some drawbacks, too, but they’re relatively minor:

  • Bounded channels use more memory - every slot in the buffer contains an additional AtomicUsize.

  • Unbounded channels are slower to construct and send a single message. Creating a channel, sending a message, receiving a message, and dropping the channel goes from 83 ns to 265 ns. The current mpsc implementation has a special optimization for “oneshot” channels that can’t be used anymore. Unfortunately, this optimization also prevents Sender from implementing Sync.

We can have multiple consumers now!

The new implementation will incidentally also make it possible to implement Sync and Clone for Receiver trivially. Currently, if one wants to share the receiving side of a channel, they have to jump through hoops.

You can see this in the Graceful Shutdown and Cleanup chapter of The Book: the receiving side is of type Arc<Mutex<mpsc::Receiver<Job>>> and we receive messages with receiver.lock().unwrap().recv().unwrap(). This is not pretty code at all but makes sense since the “SC” part in “MPSC” stands for single-consumer.

But why is mpsc a single-consumer channel anyway? Why didn’t we go with multi-consumer channels from the beginning? I haven’t been involved with Rust at the time so cannot be completely sure about the real reason, but I believe it boils down to fast unbounded multi-consumer channels being difficult to implement without garbage collection.

Unbounded channels have to be represented as a linked list, so receive operations need to load the head node of the list and do a compare-and-swap to change the head pointer to the next node. But reading the next pointer in the head node is dangerous if there’s a concurrent receive operation that might pop this node and deallocate it!

If we were to write a multi-consumer channel in Java or Go, we’d say “whatever” and let the GC handle deallocation. But Rust offers no such luxury. The usual solution for us is to use epoch-based garbage collection, but it’s a too big and complex piece of code to have in the standard library.

Fortunately, it’s possible to implement a multi-consumer channel with a relatively simple trick that allocates nodes in segments and occasionally locks segments for a very short time. This keeps good scalability of channels, simplifies the code, and even makes it faster in the typical case due to smaller overhead incurred by GC-related book-keeping. But this trick wasn’t well-known when mpsc was created.

The API needs improvement

Let’s take a good look at the current API for mpsc channels. I’ll omit iterators and error types because we designed them right the first time and they’re uninteresting for the sake of this analysis.

There are three types that represent channels and two constructors:

struct Sender<T> {}
struct SyncSender<T> {}
struct Receiver<T> {}

fn channel<T>() -> (Sender<T>, Receiver<T>);
fn sync_channel<T>(n: usize) -> (SyncSender<T>, Receiver<T>);

Some of those types implement Clone, Send, and Sync:

impl<T> Clone for Sender<T> {}
impl<T: Send> Send for Sender<T> {}

impl<T> Clone for SyncSender<T> {}
impl<T: Send> Send for SyncSender<T> {}
impl<T: Send> Sync for SyncSender<T> {}

impl<T: Send> Send for Receiver<T> {}

Finally, methods for sending and receiving messages:

impl<T> Sender<T> {
    fn send(&self, t: T) -> Result<(), SendError<T>>;

impl<T> SyncSender<T> {
    fn try_send(&self, t: T) -> Result<(), TrySendError<T>>;
    fn send(&self, t: T) -> Result<(), SendError<T>>;

impl<T> Receiver<T> {
    fn try_recv(&self) -> Result<T, TryRecvError>;
    fn recv(&self) -> Result<T, RecvError>;
    fn recv_timeout(&self, timeout: Duration) -> Result<T, RecvTimeoutError>;

Note how SyncSender is strictly more powerful than Sender - it has a superset of features. And really, there is no good reason why we need two distinct sender types and a single receiver type. If we were to design channels from scratch today, I’m sure there would be just a single Sender type.

As already mentioned, another issue with this API is the fact that Sender doesn’t implement Sync, which will be fixed by the new channel implementation.

The third issue is the lack of send_timeout method on SyncSender, which would block for a limited time when the channel is full. If Receiver has recv_timeout, why wouldn’t there be a similar method on the sending side? I believe the omission of this method is just an oversight and we don’t have it only because nobody has implemented it yet.

Confusing terminology

Here’s a line of code from The Book, chapter Message Passing, under heading Creating Multiple Producers by Cloning the Transmitter:

let tx1 = mpsc::Sender::clone(&tx);

Okay, so we’re creating a new transmitter by cloning the sender side of a multi-producer… wait, that’s three different words describing the same concept in a single line!

Synonyms like that make it for more painful user experience than it has to be, and we’re just getting started. Let’s take a complete tour through all the issues of the terminology used by mpsc.

Synonyms, shorthands, acronyms

Is it sender, transmitter, or producer? Is it receiver or consumer? To make matters worse, in Servo, senders are called chans and receivers are called ports. That’s a lot of words to remember.

The shorthands for sender and receiver are tx and rx. Why not just use s and r instead? When I was learning Rust, I had to google for “tx”, read an article on Wikipedia to learn it stands for transmission in telecommunications, and then connect the dots to realize it’s a synonym for sender.

And what about the cryptic name mpsc? I can’t count how many times I saw it misspelled as mspc or something of that sort. It’s not an acronym that rolls off the tongue nor is it easy to remember. We could’ve named the module chan or channel instead.

Synchronous vs asynchronous

There are three types of channels:

  • Unbounded channels - they don’t have a fixed capacity.
  • Bounded channels - they have a fixed capacity.
  • Zero-capacity channels - the capacity is zero (a special case of bounded channels).

Now let’s see what these three types are called in various libraries.

  Unbounded Bounded Zero-capacity
Golang N/A asynchronous/buffered synchronous/unbuffered
std::sync::mpsc asynchronous synchronous rendezvous
futures-channel unbounded bounded N/A
crossbeam-channel unbounded bounded zero-capacity

I think the most frustrating part here is that what mpsc calls synchronous, Golang calls asynchronous. Oof. The logic is probably in that mpsc thinks of bounded channels as synchronous when full and Golang thinks of them as asynchronous when not full. Both of them are correct in their own ways, but this is a real mess.

We’re about to get async/await soon, so I expect we’ll start talking about asynchronous channels in a completely different context, which will make the confusion even worse.

And we’re not done yet! Note that when we, e.g. say SyncSender implements Sync, trait Sync has absolutely nothing to do with the prefix Sync. The Sync trait means it can be shared by reference across threads, while the Sync prefix means it’s a bounded channel.

We should’ve called channels bounded and unbounded instead. That way, there’d be no chance of mistaking those words for anything else.

Disconnect vs close

When all senders or all receivers associated with a channel get dropped, the channel becomes disconnected, meaning no more messages can be sent into it. I think use of the word disconnected is perfectly fine here, but it’s unfortunate how pretty much everywhere else channels get closed instead. While this may seem like a minor annoyance at worst, it’s becoming more and more of a problem.

First of all, within the codebase of mpsc, channels get closed. Only in the public documentation they get disconnected.

In crossbeam-channel, I use disconnected just because mpsc uses the same, but I’m seriously considering switching to closed before publishing version 1.0.

In Unix pipes, ipc-channel, Go channels, proposed C++ queues, and Node.js streams, closed is used.

In futures-channel, channels get closed, but senders and receivers can also be manually disconnected, which essentially means handles become “null” and using them will result in a panic. Therefore, disconnect in mpsc and in futures-channel does not mean the same thing at all, which is really confusing!

Finally, disconnected is a bit longer than closed - consider RecvTimeoutError::Disconnected. That’s wordy and not fun to type.

The “clean slate” proposal

If we’re going to introduce new channels rather than try fixing mpsc, let’s revamp the interface entirely and avoid all the mistakes previously made.

I suggest we take the following steps in that case:

  1. Create std::sync::channel module with new channels.
  2. Change the guts of mpsc to use channel behind the scenes, but otherwise don’t change it.
  3. Do a crater run to make sure there are no regressions.
  4. Stabilize std::sync::channel.
  5. Phase out mpsc and nudge users towards channel.

Here’s how the new channels would look. There is only a single sender type for both bounded and unbounded channels:

struct Sender<T> {}
struct Receiver<T> {}

fn unbounded<T>() -> (Sender<T>, Receiver<T>);
fn bounded<T>(n: usize) -> (Sender<T>, Receiver<T>);

Sender and Receiver implement all of Clone, Send, and Sync, so they can be shared across threads in any way you find most convenient:

impl<T> Clone for Sender<T> {}
impl<T: Send> Send for Sender<T> {}
impl<T: Send> Sync for Sender<T> {}

impl<T> Clone for Receiver<T> {}
impl<T: Send> Send for Receiver<T> {}
impl<T: Send> Sync for Receiver<T> {}

The methods for sending and receiving messages come in three flavors: non-blocking, blocking, and blocking with a timeout.

impl<T> Sender<T> {
    fn try_send(&self, t: T) -> Result<(), TrySendError<T>>;
    fn send(&self, t: T) -> Result<(), SendError<T>>;
    fn send_timeout(&self, t: T, timeout: Duration) -> Result<(), SendTimeoutError<T>>;

impl<T> Receiver<T> {
    fn try_recv(&self) -> Result<T, TryRecvError>;
    fn recv(&self) -> Result<T, RecvError>;
    fn recv_timeout(&self, timeout: Duration) -> Result<T, RecvTimeoutError>;

Note how beautifully symmetrical Sender and Receiver now are. And this API is more powerful than mpsc despite being smaller and simpler!

The new channels would use clearer terminology:

  • There’s no mention of producers, consumers, or transmitters.
  • Also no mention of synchronous and asynchronous channels - they are bounded and unbounded instead.
  • Senders and receivers are abbreviated as s and r.
  • Channels get closed rather than disconnected.

If you’d like to see the full interface with examples, check out the documentation generated from the prototype and compare it to the documentation for mpsc channels.


Despite all the flaws, the mpsc module is a brilliant piece of code and was one of the coolest and most advanced channel implementations at the time Rust 1.0 came out. But state of the art has progressed since then and I believe it’s time for it to go.

Our terminology around mpsc channels is all over the place. It’s a hindrance to learning, and I think the unnecessary clunkiness paints a bad picture of Rust. Now is a great chance to come up with a new and well-thought-out language for talking about channels that will be adopted throughout the library ecosystem. Currently, every channel library has its own set of annoying inconsistencies deviating from others, making the whole situation even worse.

I’m aware adding new APIs and removing old ones from the standard library is going to be painful. But my opinion is keeping the status quo is the worse scenario and being stuck with poorly designed channels will be even more painful down the road. I hope we fix the mistakes in our channels and the sooner that happens, the better.

If we decide to transition to the new channel module, I promise to help by:

  • Writing clear instructions in the docs on how to switch from mpsc to channel.
  • Refreshing The Book with new idioms. Do we accept pull requests?
  • Updating the Rust Cookbook.
  • Pushing all channel libraries to follow suit by using consistent naming with the new channels.

And, of course, if we decide to stick with mpsc, I’ll still swap the codebase for the new one and add the missing features like Sync implementation for Sender and the send_timeout method.